هشدارها و علائم ایمنی

admin 7 جولای 2014 مقالات , 1,625

هشدارها و علائم ایمنی­­­­­

برای اینکه بتوانیم در برخورد با مواد خطرناک، بخوبی از برچسب های ایمنی الصاق شده بر روی آنها استفاده کنیم باید با مفهوم شکل ها و حروف نشان داده شده در جدولهای زیر آشنا باشیم:

هشدارها و علائم ایمنی

 

اختصارات مربوط به انواع خطرات(R-Phrases)

در حال حاضر در بسياري از کشورها اطلاعات مربوط به مواد شيميايي حاوي کد هاي مشخص کننده خطرات مواد (R Phrases) مانند R23 ، R45و غيره هستند. معاني اين کدها در زير آمده است.

R1 Explosive when dry.R2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other source of ignition.

R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.

R4 Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds.

R5 Heating may cause an explosion.

R6 Explosive with or without contact with air.

R7 May cause fire.

R8 Contact with combustible material may cause fire.

R9 Explosive when mixed with combustible material.

R10 Flammable.

R11 Highly flammable.

R12 Extremely flammable.

R13 Extremely flammable liquefied gas

R14 Reacts violently with water.

R15 Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.

R16 Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances.

R17 Spontaneously flammable in air.

R18 In use, may form inflammable/explosive vapour-air mixture.

R19 May form explosive peroxides.

R20 Harmful by inhalation.

R21 Harmful in contact with skin.

R22 Harmful if swallowed.

R23 Toxic by inhalation.

R24 Toxic in contact with skin.

R25 Toxic if swallowed.

R26 Very toxic by inhalation.

R27 Very toxic in contact with skin.

R28 Very toxic if swallowed.

R29 Contact with water liberates toxic gas.

R30 Can become highly flammable in use.

R31 Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.

R32 Contact with acid liberates very toxic gas.

R33 Danger of cumulative effects.

R34 Causes burns.

R35 Causes severe burns.

R36 Irritating to eyes.

R37 Irritating to respiratory system.

R38 Irritating to skin.

R39 Danger of very serious irreversible effects.

R40 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.

R41 Risk of serious damage to the eyes.

R42 May cause sensitization by inhalation.

R43 May cause sensitization by skin contact.

R44 Risk of explosion if heated under confinement.

R45 May cause cancer.

R46 May cause heritable genetic damage.

R47 May cause birth defects

R48 Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.

R49 May cause cancer by inhalation.

R50 Very toxic to aquatic organisms.

R51 Toxic to aquatic organisms.

R52 Harmful to aquatic organisms.

R53 May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.

R54 Toxic to flora.

R55 Toxic to fauna.

R56 Toxic to soil organisms.

R57 Toxic to bees.

R58 May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment.

R59 Dangerous to the ozone layer.

R60 May impair fertility.

R61 May cause harm to the unborn child.

R62 Risk of impaired fertility.

R63 Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.

R64 May cause harm to breastfed babies.

R65 Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.

R66 Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.

R67 Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.

R68 Possible risk of irreversible effects.

 

اختصارات مربوط به انواع توصيه هاي ايمني(S-Phrases)

در حال حاضر در بسياري از کشورها اطلاعات مربوط به مواد شيميايي حاوي کد هاي مربوط به توصيه هاي ايمني در مورد مواد (S Phrases) مانند S17 ، S2و غيره هستند. معاني اين کدها در زير آمده است.

 

S1 Keep locked up.S2 Keep out of the reach of children.

S3 Keep in a cool place.

S4 Keep away living quarters.

S5 Keep contents under … (there follows the name of a liquid).

S6 Keep under … (there follows the name of an inert gas).

S7 Keep container tightly closed.

S8 Keep container dry.

S9 Keep container in a well-ventilated place.

S12 Do not keep the container sealed.

S13 Keep away food, drink and animal foodstuffs.

S14 Keep away … (a list of incompatible materials will follow).

S15 Keep away heat.

S16 Keep away sources of ignition.

S17 Keep away combustible material.

S18 Handle and open container with care.

S20 When using, do not eat or drink.

S21 When using do not smoke.

S22 Do not breathe dust.

S23 Do not breathe vapour.

S24 Avoid contact with skin.

S25 Avoid contact with eyes.

S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.

S27 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.

S28 After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of soap-suds.

S29 Do not empty into drains.

S30 Never add water to this product.

S33 Take precautionary measures against static discharges.

S35 This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.

S36 Wear suitable protective clothing.

S37 Wear suitable gloves.

S38 In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.

S39 Wear eye / face protection.

S40 To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use …. (there follows suitable cleaning material).

S41 In case of fire and / or explosion do not breathe fumes.

S42 During fumigation / spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment.

S43 In case of fire use … (there follows the type of fire-fighting equipment to be used.)

S45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)

S46 If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.

S47 Keep at temperature not exceeding…

S48 To be kept wet with (there follows a material name).

S49 Keep only in the original container.

S50 Do not mix with …

S51 Use only in well ventilated areas.

S52 Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas.

S53 Avoid exposure – obtain special instructions before use.

S56 Dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point.

S57 Use appropriate container to avoid environmental contamination.

S59 Refer to manufacturer / supplier for information on recovery / recycling.

S60 This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.

S61 Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.

S62 If swallowed, do not induce vomitting; seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label